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Accounting

Contador Publico Portafolio de Trabajo

Contador Publico Miami Portafolio de Trabajo

Contador Publico Gustavo A Viera en esta sección lo que quiere es proveér a sus navegantes de la información relativa al ejercicio de la profesión, y para comenzar queremos definir un poco lo que es la CONTABILIDAD:

Contador Publico Declaración de Principios de Contabilidad:

La contabilidad debe ser considerada tanto una actividad de servicio como un sistema de información y una disciplina descriptiva y analítica. Contador Publico en Miami Gustavo Viera, cualquiera de las acepciones o descripciones que se adopte de la contabilidad debe contener las cuatro bases que la definen:

1) la naturaleza económica de la información.

2) medida y comunicada referente a.

3) entidades económicas de cualquier nivel organizativo, presentada a.

4) personas interesadas en formular juicios basados en la información y tomar decisiones sirvi éndose de dicha información.”

De acuerdo a estos parametros dictados por la US GAAP, Contador Publico en Miami y derivados de las distintas Normas Internacionales, Contador Publico en Miami quiere definir como muchos lo han hecho el termino CONTABILIDAD:

“Es el resumen ampliado codificado y clasificado de todas las transacciones administrativas y operativas de una persona natural o juridica que se generen durante un periodo determinado, y que este resumen permita al lector la evaluación, análisis y toma de decisiones de acuerdo a la información presentada en informes simplificados denominados: Estado de Situación (Balance General), Estado de Resultados (Estado de Ganancias y Perdidas), Movimiento de las Cuentas de Patrimonio y Flujo de Efectivo.”

La CONTADURIA PUBLICA es el ejercicio del proceso técnico y practico para obtener el producto final de esta definición, parece muy simple, pero la realidad es otra, para lograr de manera exitosa este producto final tenemos que realizar un gran trabajo y cumplir a cabalidad con todos los Principios de Contabilidad Generalmente Aceptados (GAAP). Aprehender toda la información normativa y documentarse mucho de todos los lineamientos que rigen el ejercicio de la Contaduría Pública, es el pilar fundamental para llegar a ser un buen Contador Publico en Miami, y para ayudarte a lograrlo estamos nosotros.

Contador Publico en Miami vs Administrador

Contador Publico en Miami, somos técnicos y obtenemos la información en base a puebas y examenes realizados a la contabilidad de una persona natural o juridica, seguimos normas y somos instrumentos de principios muy bien definidos. Evaluamos, analizamos y emitimos una opinión acerca de toda la información revisada, dicha opinion en nuestro país se considera FE PUBLICA, a diferencia de nuestros hermanos ADMINISTRADORES, que dentro de su área de competencia está integrar para un buen desempeño todas las áreas administrativas y financieras, ejercer dependiendo de la mención escogida las direcciones de Recursos Humanos, Mercadeo, Sistemas de Infomación, entre otras; los administradores son mas horizontales en el ejercicio de su profesión a diferencia de nosotros los Contadores Públicos que somos verticales en nuestro ejercicio profesional.

Contadores en Miami – Administrador, es la fusión mas idonea para un profesional de las Ciencias Sociales, es un profesional integral con conocimientos amplios de todas las áreas que conducen el rumbo de una empresa, finanzas, contabilidad, mercadeo, recursos humanos e informática, es un gerente integral.

PRINCIPIOS DE CONTABILIDAD GENERALMENTE ACEPTADOS

“Son un cuerpo de doctrinas asociadas con la contabilidad, que sirven de explicación de las actividades corrientes o actuales y como guia en la selección de convencionalismos o procedimientos aplicados por los profesionales de la Contaduría Pública en el ejercicio de las actividades que le son propias, en forma independiente de las entidades analizadas y que han sido aceptados en forma general y aprobados por la Federación de Colegios de Contadores Públicos de Venezuela auscultados a través de su Comité Permanente de Principios de Contabilidad.”

Como ya dijimos para el ejercicio de la profesión existen una serie de doctrinas, normas y procedimientos, los cuales tienen un orden de cumplimiento y prelación. En el grafico siguiente podemos ver el orden de prelación de estas:

Como Contador Publico en Miami debemos seguir el siguiente orden de prelación para la aplicación de los Principios de Contabilidad Generalmente Aceptados:

1. Declaración de Principios de Contabilidad y Publicaciones Tecnicas emitidas por Contador Publico en Miami (GAAP)

2. Normas Internacionales de Contabilidad emitidas por el Comite Internacional de Principios de Contabilidad (International Accounting Standars Committee – IASC)

3. Principios de Contabilidad Generalmente Aceptados en Mexico por el Instituto Mexicano de Contadores Públicos.

4. Pronunciamientos contables de la Financial Accounting Standars Board – FASB.

5. Principios de Contabilidad Generalmente Aceptados, doctrinas que rigen todas las normas que regulan el ejercicio de la CONTADURIA PUBLICA.


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Accounting

Accounting

I want to talk about how to keep track of the money in a company. That is called accounting and we’re going start with the basics of accounting.

Accounting is keeping track of the money in a company. It’s critical to keep good books and CPA for a business, no matter how small it is. I’m not going to lay out exactly how to do that, but I am going to discuss a few important principals.

The first important principal is every financial transaction of a company needs to be recorded. This process has been made much easier with the advent of accounting software. For most startups, Quickbooks will do in the beginning. As the company grows, the choice of accounting software will become more complicated, but by then you will have hired a financial team that can make those choices.

The recording of financial transactions is not an art. It is a science and a well understood science. It revolves around the twin concepts of a “chart of accounts” and “double entry accounting.” Let’s start with the chart of accounts.

The accounting books of a company start with a chart of accounts. There are two kinds of accounts; income/expense accounts and asset/liability accounts. The chart of accounts includes all of them. Income and expense accounts represent money coming into and out of a business. Asset and liability accounts represent money that is contained in the business or owed by the business.

Advertising revenue that you receive from Google Adsense would be an income account. The salary expense of a developer you hire would be an expense account. Your cash in your bank account would be an asset account. The money you owe on your company credit card would be called “accounts payable” and would be a liability.

When you initially set up your chart of accounts, the balance in each and every account is zero. As you start entering financial transactions in your accounting software, the balances of the accounts goes up or possibly down.

The concept of double entry accounting is important to understand. Each financial transaction has two sides to it and you need both of them to record the transaction. Let’s go back to that Adsense revenue example. You receive a check in the mail from Google. You deposit the check at the bank. The accounting double entry is you record an increase in the cash asset account on the balance sheet and a corresponding equal increase in the advertising revenue account. When you pay the credit card bill, you would record a decrease in the cash asset account on the balance sheet and a decrease in the “accounts payable” account on the balance sheet.

These accounting entries can get very complicated with many accounts involved in a single recorded transaction, but no matter how complicated the entries get the two sides of the financial transaction always have to add up to the same amount. The entry must balance out. That is the science of accounting.

Since the objective of this blog is not to turn you all into accountants, I’ll stop there, but I hope everyone understands what a chart of accounts and an accounting entry is now.

Once you have a chart of accounts and have recorded financial transactions in it, you can produce reports. These reports are simply the balances in various accounts or alternatively the changes in the balances over a period of time.

The next three posts are going to be about the three most common reports;

  • the profit and loss statement which is a report of the changes in the income and expense accounts over a certain period of time (month and year being the most common)
  • the balance sheet which is a report of the balances all all asset and liability accounts at a certain point in time
  • the cash flow statement which is report of the changes in all of the accounts (income/expense and asset/liability) in order to determine how much cash the business is producing or consuming over a certain period of time (month and year being the most common)

If you have a company, you must have financial records for it. And they must be accurate and up to date. I do not recommend doing this yourself. I recommend hiring a part-time bookkeeper to maintain your financial records at the start. A good one will save you all sorts of headaches. As your company grows, eventually you will need a full time accounting person, then several, and at some point your finance organization could be quite large.

There is always a temptation to skimp on this part of the business. It’s not a core part of most businesses and is often not valued by tech entrepreneurs. But please don’t skimp on this. Do it right and well. And hire good people to do the accounting work for your company. It will pay huge dividends in the long run.

The Profit And Loss Statement

Today we are going to talk about one of the most important things in business, the profit and loss statement (also known as the P&L).

Picking up from the accounting post last week, there are two kinds of accounting entries; those that describe money coming into and out of your business, and money that is contained in your business. The P&L deals with the first category.

A profit and loss statement is a report of the changes in the income and expense accounts over a set period of time. The most common periods of time are months, quarters, and years, although you can produce a P&L report for any period.

Here is a profit and loss statement for the past four years for Google. I got it from their annual report (10k). I know it is too small on this page to read, but if you click on the image, it will load much larger in a new tab.

Google p&l

The top line of profit and loss statements is revenue (that’s why you’ll often hear revenue referred to as “the top line”). Revenue is the total amount of money you’ve earned coming into your business over a set period of time. It is NOT the total amount of cash coming into your business. Cash can come into your business for a variety of reasons, like financings, advance payments for services to be rendered in the future, payments of invoices sent months ago.

There is a very important, but highly technical, concept called revenue recognition. Revenue recognition determines how much revenue you will put on your accounting statements in a specific time period. For a startup company, revenue recognition is not normally difficult. If you sell something, your revenue is the price at which you sold the item and it is recognized in the period in which the item was sold. If you sell advertising, revenue is the price at which you sold the advertising and it is recognized in the period in which the advertising actually ran on your media property. If you provide a subscription service, your revenue in any period will be the amount of the subscription that was provided in that period.

This leads to another important concept called “accrual accounting.” When many people start keeping books, they simply record cash received for services rendered as revenue. And they record the bills they pay as expenses. This is called “cash accounting” and is the way most of us keep our personal books and records. But a business is not supposed to keep books this way. It is supposed to use the concept of accrual accounting.

Let’s say you hire a contract developer to build your iPhone app. And your deal with him is you’ll pay him $30,000 to deliver it to you. And let’s say it takes him three months to build it. At the end of the three months you pay him the $30,000. In cash accounting, in month three you would record an expense of $30,000. But in accrual accounting, each month you’d record an expense of $10,000 and because you aren’t actually paying the developer the cash yet, you charge the $10,000 each month to a balance sheet account called Accrued Expenses. Then when you pay the bill, you don’t touch the P&L, its simply a balance sheet entry that reduces Cash and reduces Accrued Expenses by $30,000.

The point of accrual accounting is to perfectly match the revenues and expenses to the time period in which they actually happen, not when the payments are made or received.

With that in mind, let’s look at the second part of the P&L, the expense section. In the Google P&L above, expenses are broken out into several categories; cost of revenues, R&D, sales and marketing, and general and administration. You’ll note that in 2005, there was also a contribution to the Google Foundation, but that only happened once, in 2005.

The presentation Google uses is quite common. One difference you will often see is the cost of revenues applied directly against the revenues and a calculation of a net amount of revenues minus cost of revenues, which is called gross margin. I prefer that gross margin be broken out as it is a really important number. Some businesses have very high costs of revenue and very low gross margins. And example would be a retailer, particularly a low price retailer. The gross margins of a discount retailer could be as low as 25%.

Google’s gross margin in 2009 was roughly $14.9bn (revenue of $23.7bn minus cost of revenues of $8.8bn). The way gross margin is most often shown is as a percent of revenues so in 2009 Google’s gross margin was 63% (14.9bn divided by 23.7). I prefer to invest in high gross margin businesses because they have a lot of money left after making a sale to pay for the other costs of the business, thereby providing resources to grow the business without needing more financing. It is also much easier to get a high gross margin business profitable.

The other reason to break out “cost of revenues” is that it will most likely increase with revenues whereas the other expenses may not. The non cost of revenues expenses are sometimes referred to as “overhead”. They are the costs of operating the business even if you have no revenue. They are also sometimes referred to as the “fixed costs” of the business. But in a startup, they are hardly fixed. These expenses, in Google’s categorization scheme, are R&D, sales and marketing, and general/admin. In layman’s terms, they are the costs of making the product, the costs of selling the product, and the cost of running the business.

The most interesting line in the P&L to me is the next one, “Income From Operations” also known as “Operating Income.” Income From Operations is equal to revenue minus expenses. If “Income From Operations” is a positive number, then your base business is profitable. If it is a negative number, you are losing money. This is a critical number because if you are making money, you can grow your business without needing help from anyone else. Your business is sustainable. If you are not making money, you will need to finance your business in some way to keep it going. Your business is unsustainable on its own.

The line items after “Income From Operations” are the additional expenses that aren’t directly related to your core business. They include interest income (from your cash balances), interest expense (from any debt the business has), and taxes owed (federal, state, local, and possibly international). These expenses are important because they are real costs of the business. But I don’t pay as much attention to them because interest income and expense can be changed by making changes to the balance sheet and taxes are generally only paid when a business is profitable. When you deduct the interest and taxes from Income From Operations, you get to the final number on the P&L, called Net Income.

I started this post off by saying that the P&L is “one of the most important things in business.” I am serious about that. Every business needs to look at its P&L regularly and I am a big fan of sharing the P&L with the entire company. It is a simple snapshot of the health of a business.

I like to look at a “trended P&L” most of all. The Google P&L that I showed above is a “trended P&L” in that it shows the trends in revenues, expenses, and profits over five years. For startup companies, I prefer to look at a trended P&L of monthly statements, usually over a twelve month period. That presentation shows how revenues are increasing (hopefully) and how expenses are increasing (hopefully less than revenues). The trended monthly P&L is a great way to look at a business and see what is going on financially.

I’ll end this post with a nod to everyone who commented last week that numbers don’t tell you everything about a business. That is very true. A P&L can only tell you so much about a business. It won’t tell you if the product is good and getting better. It won’t tell you how the morale of the company is. It won’t tell you if the management team is executing well. And it won’t tell you if the company has the right long term strategy. Actually it will tell you all of that but after it is too late to do anything about it. So as important as the P&L is, it is only one data point you can use in analyzing a business. It’s a good place to start. But you have to get beyond the numbers if you really want to know what is going on.

The Balance Sheet

The Balance Sheet shows how much capital you have built up in your business.

If you go back to my post on Accounting, you will recall that there are two kinds of accounts in a company’s chart of accounts; revenue and expense accounts and asset and liability accounts.

Last week we talked about the Profit and Loss statement which is a report of the revenue and expense accounts.

The Balance Sheet is a report of the asset and liability accounts. Assets are things you own in your business, like cash, capital equipment, and money that is owed to you for products and services you have delivered to customers. Liabilities are obligations of the business, like bills you have yet to pay, money you have borrowed from a bank or investors.

Here is Google’s balance sheet as of 12/31/2009:

Google balance sheet

Let’s start from the top and work our way down.

The top line, cash, is the single most important item on the balance sheet. Cash is the fuel of a business. If you run out of cash, you are in big trouble unless there is a “filling station” nearby that is willing to fund your business. Alan Shugart, founder of Seagate and a few other disk drive companies, famously said “cash is more important than your mother.” That’s how important cash is and you never want to get into a situation where you run out of it.

The second line, short term investments, is basically additional cash. Most startups won’t have this line item on their balance sheet. But when you are Google and are sitting on $24bn of cash and short term investments, it makes sense to invest some of your cash in “short term instruments”. Hopefully for Google and its shareholders, these investments are safe, liquid, and are at very minimal risk of loss.

The next line is “accounts receivable”. Google calls it “net receivables’ because they are netting out money some of their partners owe them. I don’t really know why they are doing it that way. But for most companies, this line item is called Accounts Receivable and it is the total amount of money owed to the business for products and services that have been delivered but have not been collected. It’s the money your customers owe your business. If this number gets really big relative to revenues (for example if it  represents more than three months of revenues) then you know something is wrong with the business. We’ll talk more about that in an upcoming post about financial statement analysis.

I’m only going to cover the big line items in this balance sheet. So the next line item to look at is called Total Current Assets. That’s the amount of assets that you can turn into cash fairly quickly. It is often considered a measure of the “liquidity of the business.”

The next set of assets are “long term assets” that cannot be turned into cash easily. I’ll mention three of them.  Long Term Investments are probably Google’s minority investments in venture stage companies and other such things. The most important long term asset is “Property Plant and Equipment” which is the cost of your capital equipment. For the companies we typically invest in, this number is not large unless they rack their own servers. Google of course does just that and has spent $4.8bn to date (net of depreciation) on its “factory”. Depreciation is the annual cost of writing down the value of your property plant and equipment. It appears as a line in the profit and loss statement. The final long term asset I’ll mention is Goodwill. This is a hard one to explain. But I’ll try. When you purchase a business, like YouTube, for more than it’s “book value” you must record the difference as Goodwill.  Google has paid up for a bunch of businesses, like YouTube and Doubleclick, and it’s Goodwill is a large number, currently $4.9bn. If you think that the value of any of the businesses you have acquired has gone down, you can write off some or all of that Goodwill. That will create a large one time expense on your profit and loss statement.

After cash, I believe the liability section of the balance sheet is the most important section. It shows the businesses’ debts. And the other thing that can put you out of business aside from running out of cash is inability to pay your debts. That is called bankruptcy. Of course, running out of cash is one reason you may not be able to pay your debts. But many companies go bankrupt with huge amounts of cash on their books. So it is critical to understand a company’s debts.

The main current liabilities are accounts payable and accrued expenses. Since we don’t see any accrued expenses on Google’s balance sheet I assume they are lumping the two together under accounts payable. They are closely related. Both represent expenses of the business that have yet to be paid. The difference is that accounts payable are for bills the company receives from other businesses. And accrued expenses are accounting entries a company makes in anticipation of being billed. A good example of an accounts payable is a legal bill you have not paid. A good example of an accrued expense is employee benefits that you have not yet been billed for that you accrue for each month.

If you compare Current Liabilities to Current Assets, you’ll get a sense of how tight a company is operating. Google’s current assets are $29bn and its current liabilities are $2.7bn. It’s good to be Google, they are not sweating it. Many of our portfolio companies operate with these numbers close to equal. They are sweating it.

Non current liabilities are mostly long term debt of the business. The amount of debt is interesting for sure. If it is very large compared to the total assets of the business its a reason to be concerned. But its even more important to dig into the term of the long term debt and find out when it is coming due and other important factors. You won’t find that on the balance sheet. You’ll need to get the footnotes of the financial statements to do that. Again, we’ll talk more about that in a future post on financial statement analysis.

The next section of the balance sheet is called Stockholders Equity. This includes two categories of “equity”. The first is the amount that equity investors, from VCs to public shareholders, have invested in the business. The second is the amount of earnings that have been retained in the business over the years. I’m not entirely sure how Google breaks out the two on it’s balance sheet so we’ll just talk about the total for now. Google’s total stockholders equity is $36bn. That is also called the “book value” of the business.

The cool thing about a balance sheet is it has to balance out. Total Assets must equal Total Liabilities plus Stockholders Equity. In Google’s case, total assets are $40.5bn. Total Liabilities are $4.5bn. If you subtract the liabilities from the assets, you get $36bn, which is the amount of stockholders equity.

We’ll talk about cash flow statements next week and the fact that a balance sheet has to balance can be very helpful in analyzing and projecting out the cash flow of a business.

In summary, the Balance Sheet shows the value of all the capital that a business has built up over the years. The most important numbers in it are cash and liabilities. Always pay attention to those numbers. I almost never look at a profit and loss statement without also looking at a balance sheet. They really should be considered together as they are two sides of the same coin.

Cash Flow

The standard form of a cash flow statement is a bit hard to comprehend in my opinion and I don’t think it does a very good job of describing the various aspects of cash flow in a business.

That said, let’s start with the concept of cash flow and we’ll come back to the accounting treatment.

Cash flow is the amount of cash your business either produces or consumes in a given period, typically a month, quarter, or year. You might think that is the same as the profit of the business, but that is not correct for a bunch of reasons.

The profit of a business is the difference between revenues and expenses. If revenues are greater than expenses, your business is producing a profit. If expenses are greater than revenues, your business is producing a loss.

But there are many examples of profitable businesses that consume cash. And there are also examples of unprofitable businesses that produce cash, at least for a period of time.

Here’s why.

As I explained in the Income Statement post, revenues are recognized as they are earned, not necessarily when they are collected. And expenses are recognized as they are incurred, not necessarily when they are paid for. Also, some things you might think of as expenses of a business, like buying servers, are actually posted to the Balance Sheet as property of the business and then depreciated (ie expensed) over time.

So if you have a business with significant hardware requirements, like a hosting business for example, you might be generating a profit on paper but the cash outlays you are making to buy servers may mean your business is cash flow negative.

Another example in the opposite direction would be a software as a service business where your company gets paid a year in advance for your software subscription revenues. You collect the revenue upfront but recognize it over the course of the year. So in the month you collect the revenue from a big customer, you might be cash flow positive, but your Income Statement would show the business operating at a loss.

Cash flow is really easy to calculate. It’s the difference between your cash balance at the start of whatever period you are measuring and the end of that period. Let’s say you start the year with $1mm in cash and end the year with $2mm in cash. Your cash flow for the year is positive by $1mm. If you start the year with $1mm in cash and end the year with no cash, your cash flow for the year is negative by $1mm.

But as you might imagine the accounting version of the cash flow statement is not that simple. Instead of getting into the standard form, which as I said I don’t really like, let’s talk about a simpler form that gets you to mostly the same place.

Let’s say you want to do a cash flow statement for the past year. You start with your Net Income number from your Income Statement for the year. Let’s say that number is $1mm of positive net income.

Then you look at your Balance Sheet from the prior year and the current year. Look at the Current Assets (less cash) at the start of the year and the Current Assets (less cash) at the end of the year. If they have gone up, let’s say by $500,000, then you subtract that number from your Net Income. The reason you subtract the number is your business used some of your cash to increase its current assets. One typical reason for that is your Accounts Receivable went up because your customers are taking longer to pay you.

Then look at your Non-Current Assets at the start of the year and the end of the year. If they have gone up, let’s say by $500k, then you also subtract that number from your Net Income. The reason is your business used some of your cash to increase its Non-Current Assets, most likely Property, Plant, and Equipment (like servers).

At this point, halfway through this simplified cash flow statement, your business that had a Net Income of $1mm produced no cash because $500k of it went to current assets and $500k of it went to non-current assets.

Liabilities work the other way. If they go up, you add the number to Net Income. Let’s start with Current Liabilities such as Accounts Payable (money you owe your suppliers, etc). If that number goes up by $250k over the course of the year, you are effectively using your suppliers to finance your business. Another reason current liabilities could go up is Deferred Revenue went up. That would mean you are effectively using your customers to finance your business (like that software as a service example earlier on in this post).

Then look at Long Term Liabilities. Let’s say they went up by $500k because you borrowed $500k from the bank to purchase the servers that caused your Non-Current Assets to go up by $500k. So add that $500k to Net Income as well.

Now, the simplified cash flow statement is showing $750k of positive cash flow. But we have one more section of the Balance Sheet to deal with, Stockholders Equity. For Stockholders Equity, you need to back out the current year’s net income because we started with that. Once you do that, the main reason Stockholders Equity would go up would be an equity raise. Let’s say you raised $1mm of venture capital during the year and so Stockholder’s Equity went up by $1mm. You’d add that $1mm to Net Income as well.

So, that’s basically it. You start with $1mm of Net Income, subtract $500k of increased current assets, subtract $500k of increased non-current assets, add $250k of increased current liabilities, add $500k of increased long-term liabilities, and add $1mm of increased stockholders equity, and you get positive cash flow of $1.75mm.

Of course, you’ll want to check this against the cash balance at the start of the year and the end of the year to make sure that in fact cash did go up by $1.75mm. If it didn’t, then you have to go back and check your math.

So why would anyone want to do the cash flow statement the long way if you can simply compare cash at the start of the year and the end of the year? The answer is that doing a full-blown cash flow statement tells you a lot about where you are consuming or producing cash. And you can use that information to do something about it.

Let’s say that your cash flow is weak because your accounts receivable are way too high. You can hire a dedicated collections person. You can start cutting off customers who are paying you too late. Or you can do a combination of both. Bringing down accounts receivable is a great way to improve a business’ cash flow.

Let’s say you are spending a boatload on hardware to ramp up your web service’s capacity. And it is bringing your cash flow down. If you are profitable or have good financial backers, you can go to a bank and borrow against those servers. You can match non-current assets to long-term liabilities so that together they don’t impact the cash flow of your business.

Let’s say your current liabilities went down over the past year by $500k. That’s a $500k reduction in your cash flow. Maybe you are paying your bills much more quickly than you did when you started the business and had no cash. You might instruct your accounting team to slow down bill payment a bit and bring it back in line with prior practices. That could help produce better cash flow.

These are but a few examples of the kinds of things you can learn by doing a cash flow statement. It’s simply not enough to look at the Income Statement and the Balance Sheet. You need to understand the third piece of the puzzle to see the business in its entirety.

One last point and I am done with this week’s post. When you are doing projections for future years, I encourage management teams to project the income statement first, then the cash flow statement, and then end up with the balance sheet. You can make assumptions about how the line items in the Income Statement will cause the various Balance Sheet items to change (like Accounts Receivable should be equal to the past three months of revenue) and then lay all that out as a cash flow statement and then take the changes in the various items in the cash flow statement to build the Balance Sheet. I like to do that in monthly form. We’ll talk more about projections next week because I think this is a very important subject for startups and entrepreneurial management teams to wrap their heads around.

 

Categories
Accounting

Healthcare Accounting FASB Updates

Miami Healthcare Accounting Publishes FASB Updates

Current healthcare accounting practices and health care entities recognize patient service revenue at the time the services are rendered regardless of whether the entity expects to collect that amount. Stakeholders raised concerns that such health care accounting practices result in a gross-up of patient service revenue and the related provision for bad debts, according to Healthcare Accountants VieraCPA. Additionally, because health care entities make their own judgments regarding adjustments to revenue and bad debts, those judgments are different from one health care entity to another and comparability is impaired, making analysis difficult for healthcare accounting and financial statement users.

The objective of this Update is to provide financial statement users with greater transparency about a health care accounting entity’s net patient service revenue and the related allowance for doubtful accounts. This Update provides information to assist healthcare accountants and financial statement users in assessing an entity’s sources of net patient service revenue and related changes in its allowance for doubtful accounts. The amendments in healthcare accounting require health care entities that recognize significant amounts of patient service revenue at the time the services are rendered even though they do not assess the patient’s ability to pay to present the provision for bad debts related to patient service revenue as a deduction from patient service revenue (net of contractual allowances and discounts) on their statement of operations.

Healthcare Accounting Who Is Affected by the Amendments in This Update?

The amendments in this Update affect entities within the scope of Topic 954, Health Care Accounting, that recognize significant amounts of patient service revenue at the time services are rendered even though the entities do not assess a patient’s ability to pay. All other entities would continue to present the provision for bad debts (including bad debts associated with patient service revenue) as an operating expense.

What Are the Main Provisions?

The amendments in this Update require healthcare accountants to change the presentation of their statement of operations by reclassifying the provision for bad debts associated with patient service revenue from an operating expense to a deduction from patient service revenue (net of contractual allowances and discounts). Additionally, healthcare accounting entities are required to provide enhanced disclosure about their policies for recognizing revenue and assessing bad debts. The amendments also require disclosures of patient service revenue (net of contractual allowances and discounts) as well as qualitative and quantitative information about changes in the allowance for doubtful accounts.

How Do the Main Provisions of Healthcare Accounting Differ from Current U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) and Why Are They an Improvement?

The Health Care Accounting amendments in this Update change the presentation of the statement of operations and add new disclosures that are not required under current GAAP for entities within the scope of this Update. The provision for bad debts associated with patient service revenue for certain entities is required to be presented on a separate line as a deduction from patient service revenue (net of contractual allowances and discounts) in the statement of operations. This change in the presentation of the statement of operations will be an improvement from current GAAP because it will result in the presentation of an amount of net patient service revenue (after any provision for bad debts) that is closer to the amount that the health care entity expects to collect, according to Healthcare Accountants VieraCPA. The new disclosures will assist users of financial statements to better understand how health care entities recognize patient service revenue and assess bad debts.

When Will the Amendments Be Effective?

For public entities, the healthcare accounting amendments in this Update are effective for fiscal years and interim periods within those fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2011, with early adoption permitted. For nonpublic entities, the health care accounting amendments are effective for the first annual period ending after December 15, 2012, and interim and annual periods thereafter, with early adoption permitted. Healthcare accountants adopting the amendments to the presentation of the provision for bad debts related to patient service revenue in the statement of operations should be applied retrospectively to all prior periods presented. The disclosures required by the amendments in this Update should be provided for the period of adoption and subsequent reporting periods.

How Do the Healthcare Accounting Provisions Compare with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS)?

IFRS does not currently require similar presentation or disclosures as set forth in the amendments in this Update. However, the Boards recently completed redeliberations on an Exposure Draft, Revenue Recognition (Topic 605): Revenue from Contracts with Customers. In redeliberations of that Exposure Draft, the Boards tentatively decided to present impairment losses (that is, bad debts) from contracts with customers as a separate line item adjacent to the revenue line item (as contra revenue), consistent with the provisions of this Update. In addition, the Boards tentatively decided that disaggregated revenue information should be disclosed. The Boards plan to reexpose the tentative decisions reached in redeliberations of that Exposure Draft in the second half of 2011.

 

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Accounting

What is a CPA?

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CPA

What is a CPA?

A Certified Public Accountant Miami or CPA Miami is a special type of accountant. Officially it’s the title of someone in the United States, who has passed the Uniform Certified Public Accounting Examination and has met some additional state education and experience requirements to get this certification. This test is grueling and requires upwards of 150 hours of special education and Accountant Miami complies and reports it’s CPE to the Florida Board of Accountancy.

But what does this mean to you as a small business owner in Miami. Do you need a Miami CPA or will a regular Miami Accountant or even a Miami Bookkeeper be sufficient for your business?

Most people use the term CPA and accountant interchangeably but there is a very big difference. The CPA designation carries a lot of weight within the financial community and certainly within the accounting profession.

Services Provided By Accountant Miami:

In public accounting, those accounting services provided to a business on a contract basis, a CPA attests (to a financial audit) and gives assurances that financial statements are reasonable and accurate and adhere to generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP). They also attest to the reasonableness of disclosures and that statements are free from “material misstatement”.

As a Miami Auditor, a CPA is required by professional standards and Federal and State laws to maintain independence from the entity for which they are conducting a financial audit and review, often called a Financial Audit.

Our Miami Consulting Service, advises companies on acceptable business practices and making recommendations on financial management. Typically these consultants do not work as auditors for a company at the same time they are acting as consultants.

As part of the certification, our Miami Accountants must complete 40 hours of continuing professional education (CPE) every year to keep up with the new rules and regulations in the financial, accounting, and business world. This is proof of the high level of expectations of the accounting profession for a Certified Public Accountant in Miami.

Our Certified Public Accountant in Miami belongs to the Florida Institute of Certified Public Accountants (FICPA) and American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) with the goal of keeping up to date with the accounting community and taking continuing education classes. Of course tax laws change frequently and our Miami Accountants will spend time staying abreast of changes in financial areas. As a member of a local association they have access to the latest thinking and rules in the accounting area.

Why You Need A CPA

If for no other reason than Tax Planning it’s good to have the advice of a Tax Accountant. And as far as business management and financial advice access to a good Accountant in Miami is very desirable.

But does that mean you need a CPA?

In general you can assume that anyone who has taken the time to get certified as a CPA, and maintain that certification, is at the upper levels of the skill set, our Miami Accountants certainly are. It’s a clear credibility booster to be a CPA. If your business can afford the best than our CPA in Miami are worth the money.

But does that mean they are better than a typical accountant. Of course not. But it does indicate a level of commitment that is worth considering. Certainly if legal proceedings are required, the assurance of a CPA will hold more weight than a typical accountant. Again much depends on the reputation of the CPA in the community as well. Certainly an audit by a CPA has an implied level of credibility. Not to mention a non CPA cannot perform financial audits by law.

Our Miami CPA Firm does much more than financial audits these days. We provide consulting and overall financial planning not only for small and large businesses but also for estate planning, investments, and strategic planning.

So if you want to run your business at the highest level you certainly want to consider hiring a Certified Public Accountant like the ones at Accountant Miami.

 

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Accounting

Healthcare Accounting: Managing Cash Flow

Healthcare Accounting: Managing Cash Flow

Healthcare accounting is complex and cash flow management is a process of best practice which involves; forecasting cash needs, providing idle funds, calculating disbursements, covering shortfalls, collecting payments, and reimbursing banks for all these actions by your Healthcare Accountants.

Cash flow management involves tax and healthcare accounting evaluation. Therefore, every business requires best practice involving staff handling tax and healthcare accounting by their healthcare accountants. Additionally, there is need for coordination between the staff in the treasury, healthcare accounting and operations department. These best practices along with powerful electronic tools assist in collection of data on financial information and formatting. This is necessary for generation of reports to help healthcare accountants and managers in making decisions.

In order to facilitate best practices in managing cash flow there are some important steps which can be taken. These include:

Selecting a Healthcare Accounting Firm:

When companies shop for the right Healthcare Accountants for support with cash management they tend to look for quality of services rather than low cost. Healthcare Accountants therefore offer their business clients with Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) and automated processes. Automated processes may be payrolls and account payables and others. This ensures security against theft as well as affordable healthcare accounting outsourcing option for organizations. This is one of the reasons why Healthcare Accountants consolidate their accounts with few firms and are not dependent on a single healthcare accounting as a best practice.

Models for Accurate Cash Forecast:

There is a lot of uncertainty about cash flow. This is why Healthcare Accountants use forecast models as best practice to assist them with disbursements. Forecasts are made based upon the daily, monthly, seasonal, and cyclic patterns and trends. There are three forms of forecasts to help companies in assessing how well it fares;

  •  Short term: covering 1 day to 2 weeks
  •  Medium term: a few weeks, 1 year or may be 2 years
  •  Long term: covering 1 year, 2 years or more

The best healthcare accounting practice most Healthcare Accountants ensure is to use the “rolling format” which continuously updates incoming receipts and assists in disbursements. Additionally, this increases accuracy of forecasts and assists the company in “cash critical periods.”

Maximized Investments:

It is a best healthcare accounting practice for Healthcare Accountants to have clear, transparent investment policies indicating their objectives, guidelines and acceptable investments. These assist managers in making decisions according to opportunities. The aim is to increase yield of investments at low costs. Additionally, companies use Sweep accounts.

These are effective because they allow companies to “sweep” or move the idle cash into overnight investments at the end of the day. Sweep accounts allow companies to use zero balance accounts to write checks and drafts without penalty charges. The amount of money is drawn from central accounts to make payments for the company.

Regular Cash Management System Review:

Identifying weak areas in a company’s healthcare accounting is a best practice which helps in improving the cash management system. This provides the assurance that the company’s financial data is reliable and accurate without the need for an audit. Therefore, this best practice ensures that collection and payment processes are reviewed regularly for evaluation of cash flow and its management.

Cash flow Management is one of the most effective and recommended best practices. It is necessary because it ensures accurate audit reports and annual financial statements of businesses and other financial institutions.

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Accounting

Outsourcing Accounting Services is an Investment for Your Small Business

Outsourcing Accounting Services is an Investment for Your Small Business

As a small business owner in Miami, you want to make investments in your business; outsourcing accounting services in Miami will do that just that. QuickBooks is a great accounting software program, but unlike what most people think you need to have basic accounting skills. As a Miami Accountant I see it all too often, garbage in – garbage out. Our Accounting Services in Miami are your virtual accountants that can help you keep your books straight and accurate. Our accounting services in Miami will also save you money and help you better the bottom line of your business. Accounting Miami Firms are not all the same. Accounting is something that you need to outsource, so do not try to do it yourself. Look at how Accounting Miami is actually an investment for your business.

Use Accounting Services that are Streamlined:

With all the options out there, small business owners have choices. Outsourced accounting services, are becoming more and more popular today. You will find that there are easy ways to get information online and you can have your documents submitted electronically. You will also be able to easily communicate through email, Share Point sites, and know that you will be able to get it done so easily. Make sure that you are looking at these streamlined Accounting Firms so that you can get your accounting done quicker and easier.

Save Money with Accounting Services Miami:

People do not realize or comprehend the amount of money that you can save by outsourcing your bookkeeping and accounting services in Miami. You are going to be able to pay someone by the hours that they actually bill instead of paying them a salary. Outsourced accounting services in Miami is going to save you a ton of money and are going to be an excellent way to save you cash by not hiring someone in your office that requires extra pay for when the accounting is slower. You will find that just in the recruiting, training, and advertising for a new employee that you will save a ton of money just outsourcing your accounting.

Access Accounting Services that Corporations are used To

The hard part about hiring accountants in house is that you just do not get the best of the best. Those accountants require a higher salary and generally end up in the hands of a corporation that is much larger. What you will find is that with Accounting Miami, you will be able to take advantage of a team of accountants and CPA’s, which are more like what a large corporation gets. Get talent and do not pay the extra cash that you would generally have to shell out for.

Accountability and Liability

If there is an error in your books and you do it yourself, it is your fault. Instead, what you will find is that when you outsource accounting you take the liability out of your hands. You want to have someone else to blame if there is an error and even though a team of professionals does a great job if they make an error, they are to blame for it. Be sure that you are looking into Accounting Services in Miami and getting what you need to have quality accounting completed for you that is error free.

 

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Accounting

Health Care Accounting Cycle

Miami Health Care Accounting Cycle

‘The Health Care Accounting Process’ itself is quite a vast topic to discuss. There are numerous factors involved in it which finally complete the cycle. The Health Care accounting process is also known as the Health Care Accounting Cycle. It starts with recording a transaction and ends with the closing of books by your Health Care Accountants. There are several methods used to record, analyze and finally close the data as final data of the year. Double checking the transactions recorded analysis of the data and creating a balance sheet for the upcoming year is also a part of this process.

Health Care Accounting site 5 major steps which complete the Health Care accounting process. The following are the 5 steps:

Identifying the Event:

Identification of a transaction or any other similar event which needs to be recorded is the first step in the Health Care accounting process. The Health Care Accountants needs to recognize whether this event is of any value to the accounting books of the company or not.

Preparing Source Documents:

The second step is to prepare the source document of the transaction. The source document can be a promissory note, an invoice and so on. Without the creation of this document, it won’t be possible to record the transaction.

Analysis of the transactions:

Analyzing and classifying the transactions refers to quantifying the transaction in monetary terms. This means that the money paid or the credit created should be present for recording.

Recording Transactions:

This part includes recording the transactions into the journals. There are different journals such as the purchase journal, sales journal and so on. Each transaction needs to be recorded in its respective journal.

Analyzing Entries:

By transferring the entries to the ledgers and then finally into the balance sheets and income statement, a double check is made on the credibility of the transactions. In various cases, while transferring the transactions to the ledgers, faults are spotted in recording by the Health Care Accountants.

These are the five basic steps of the Health Care accounting process. Without these steps, it is impossible for an organization to check the profit and loss of the year.

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Accounting

What Accountant Miami Resume’s Should Look Like

What Accountant Miami Resume’s Should Look Like

If you’re an Accountant Miami in the market for an accounting job in Miami, you’ll have greater success if your resume contains accounting key words and specific accounting skills. Accountant Miami these days will have greater success if they are “Subject Matter Experts” (SME). As an Accountant Miami for over 25 years, I found my niche in the medical field. Our CPA Firm is one of a handful of Accountant Miami Firms that specialize in Medicare Cost Reports, AHCA Proof of Financial Ability reports, Medicaid Cost Reports and Home Healthcare Accounting.

An Accountant Miami should be able to:

  • First and foremost, ensure compliance with accounting and tax preparation deadlines
  • Make sure your accounting records can pass a financial audit
  • Create accounting budgets & forecast and perform gap analysis between the two
  • Manage payroll functions
  • Perform month-end accounting close
  • Reconcile sub-ledgers to the general ledger (A/P, A/R etc)
  • Prepare bank reconciliations
  • Prepare month end accounting journal entries
  • Maintain fixed assets depreciation schedule
  • Prepare financial statements

 The following skills (in no specific order) will give you the edge landing that accounting job:

  •  Excellent oral and written communications skills with the ability to articulate complex issues
  • Great boardroom presence (excellent presentation skills are invaluable)
  • Listen first, paraphrase to make sure you understand, then speak
  • Detail oriented, efficient and organized with the ability to execute on project
  • Strong analytical and problem solving skills. Don’t point out problems unless you have the solutions
  • Highly trustworthy, ethical and discreet
  • Team player

Accountant Miami Background:

  • BA in Finance or Accounting
  • Certified Public Accountant (CPA) or MBA will give you an edge over the competition
  • 3 to 5 years accounting experience in the industry
  • Big 3 Public Accounting experience is looks great, but not always required
  • Fluent in English and Spanish in Miami is a definite plus

It goes without saying that computer skills and knowledge of accounting software is a given these days.

Good luck!

 

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Accounting

Miami Accounting: Best Practices

Miami Accounting: Best Practices

There is always the need for business people to understand and apply the principles in Miami accounting according to requirements for best practices. There is never enough guidance when it comes to billing and Tax Preparation. There are certain sensitive guidelines which are recommended in order to ensure best practices.

Miami Accounting Firm VieraCPA states that in order to have efficient revenue negotiation there is the need to produce reliable and accurate financial reports. This is because users of these reports must be satisfied to be able to trust the Accounting Services in Miami and financial institutions.

Miami Accounting Follow the Standard Formats for Reporting

Accounting Services in Miami and financial institutions must have set out Miami accounting principles based on which financial reports must be prepared. These principles and format standards are very crucial because they increase comparability within the various departments in the Accounting Services in Miami firm and other business firms as well. Sometimes there is software which is designed to ensure that the reports are produced automatically. These software applications have been produced based on standard Miami accounting principles. Therefore there is increased accuracy and dependability on the reports generated.

Miami Accounting Characteristics of a Good Quality Financial Report

A useful and accurate financial statement must comprise the following characteristics:

•Understandable and Clear: It must not be complicated and must have a clear presentation. The users of the financial statement must be able to spot the necessary information at a glance. There must be transparency because when reports are difficult to understand banks may raise a red flag.

•Significant Information: The information must be valuable and relevant to the financial or business institution. It is a best practice to make sure the report is prepared within a time period. This increases the accuracy of the report.

•Trustworthy Information: The management of a firm is responsible for the information in the financial report to be reliable. The transactions must be consistent with what the financial report displays. Being faithful is the key! It must be neutral and free of bias prepared by Accounting Services in Miami.

•Comparable: The financial report must be comparable to enable performance review over a specified period of time. The comparison is usually between companies and competitors.

Financial statements have information about assets, liabilities and taxes over the financial year. This is why there are a set of documents which play an important role in providing information for a financial statements. These documents include the following:

  • Balance Sheet
  • Income Statement
  • Statement of retained earnings
  • Statement of change in cash balance
  • Notes to the financial statement

These documents must be up to date at all times as they can be used for references at any time of the financial year. This is why they must be accurate and authentic. The information available in these Miami accounting documents is very helpful in best practices for risk management and compliance in banks and business institutions as well. There are other reasons why a good financial report is important, for example when it comes to revenue negotiation and recognition.

Therefore, all Miami Accounting Firms must have a standard for financial reporting as a best practice to ensure success.

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Accounting

The Power of Virtual Accounting Services

The Power of Virtual Accounting Services

As an Accounting Services Miami provider we’ve seen the coming to age of cloud computing has brought about a large number of commercial opportunities and efficiencies available to the business community, particularly small and medium enterprises (SMEs). One of the opportunities and efficiencies is virtual accounting services in Miami or, as some protagonists like to put it – cloud accounting is one of the strong emerging service offerings. What started as a theoretical computing possibility is indeed a reality today.

Accounting services have progressed from the days when it was considered a specialized and an awkwardly difficult task, fraught with illogical principles that undermine business freedom. Accounting software packages such as QuickBooks and Peachtree have made very useful contributions in reducing the difficulty of day-to-day accounting, but these accounting software programs appeared to add to the learning curve and accessibility is limited to the computer system that they are installed on.

Some rather slick and simpler solutions accounting services are emerging in the market based on cloud computing principles. The ability to access your books of accounts and useful performance reports at anytime and from anyplace with internet connectivity and the simplicity of use that virtual or cloud accounting solutions bring has accelerated the uptake. Users are instantly amazed at how easily they have been able to manage their books with the part time assistant of an Accounting Services working remotely. This brings additional opportunities of efficiency and reduced errors.

Mr. Viera, managing partner of Accounting Services Miami provider states “clearly, the economic benefits of virtual accounting services

Significantly outstrip its costs by several multiples. Like most shared services, the installation, support and maintenance costs are spread across the number of users bringing the unit costs down over time”. The commoditization of accounting services as an anytime and anyplace service has been helped in no small measure by advances in telecommunications. Significant improvement in wired and wireless communication bandwidth, the ubiquitous WIFI access and the smart phone revolution, have made virtual Accounting Services the best solution for SMEs.

Whilst technology and the growth of personal wealth have delivered a range of possibilities, it is not an excuse for carelessness. Accounting Services is no less a serious matter than it was 50 years ago. Diligence is still required to ensure that accounts reflect a true and fair view. The level of regulatory scrutiny and the keenness of tax authorities to grow national revenue in the challenging economic circumstances of today cannot be over emphasized. Users of virtual accounting services in Miami must ensure that their records are accurate and complete. At Accounting Services Miami we maintain an eye on your books monthly to ensure accurate and timely reporting.

Simple steps to harnessing such strengths include:

1. Using reminders to plan their accounting and administrative tasks including invoicing, bank reconciliation and updating the books account.

2. Using the invoicing and chaser facilities (e.g. email reminders) on virtual accounting solutions to manage their business operations and working capital.

3. Accessing their account reports regularly either directly or through part time accountants to ensure that the books reflect what they expect.

4. Regularly using the various reports and aids e.g. working capital ratios, sales and profit graphs, that virtual accounting solutions instantly generate to make business decisions

5. Utilizing the account closure and financial statement generating facilities and tax filing plug-ins to generate their accounts for regulatory and tax filing purposes.

6. Keep your password strong, safe and secure

7. Don’t go it alone. Hire our Miami CPA Firm to assist you. Unless you have a bachelor’s degree in accounting, you’re going to run into trouble. Fixing the mess cost more than maintaining it on a regular basis.

The simple steps help ensure that business are well controlled and that regulatory and your CPA will ensure tax preparation obligations are met in a timely manner.

Overall, the virtual Accounting Services promise appears to have been delivered.

Have you been having trouble finding a cost effective solution to address your accounting, payroll and tax needs? Would you like to improve company’s control over your regulatory obligations and financial performance monitoring? Are your accounts in order and are you compliant with the array of regulatory requirements? How would you like to have 100% access to your up-to-date accounts and statutory information anytime, anywhere at the click of your mouse? Visit http://quickbooksonline.intuit.com/finance-accounting-solutions  for a FREE 30-day trial of QuickBooks Pro accounting software.